Bluebird and Small Cavity Nester Conservation
Sialis - Bluebirds and other small cavity nesters
 
bluebirds

printer friendly page

Environmentally Responsible Landscaping for Bluebirds and Other Birds

Quick tips: Plant native plants adapted to your climate from the list below that produce berries favored by bluebirds, especially some that will retain fruit through the fall and winter when insects are scarce. Best bets are flowering dogwood, foster holly, eastern red cedar, and american elderberry.
Western bluebirds eating Tonyon berries.  Photo by Leslie McCulloch of California
Above: Western bluebirds eating Tonyon berries. Photo by Leslie McCulloch of California.
Below: Eastern bluebird fledgling eating Pokeweed. photo by Dave Kinneer of Virginia.
Eastern bluebird fledgling eating pokeweed. Photo by Dave Kinneer

Bluebirds rarely eat birdseed (although they will occasionally take shelled sunflowerchips). 68% of their diet is made up of insects such as grasshoppers, crickets, beetles, spiders, and caterpillars. They enjoy mealworms. They may eat suet (see link for recipes), especially during winter months. They also like the fruit of plants such as flowering dogwood, eastern red cedar, holly, and pokeweed. (Bluebirds will swallow dogwood berries whole and then regurgitate the pits.) They may eat fruit in winter (when it may make up 50% of their diet), fall, and summer; and also in the spring, especially if insects are scarce.

Of course, plants offer other benefits. Trees purify the air. Plants may provide shelter/cover for wildlife. And the plants listed here may attract other animals and birds as well--e.g., the fruit of the Pagoda Dogwood is eaten by at least 34 bird species, including the Downy Woodpecker, Brown Thrasher, Wood Thrush, Eastern Bluebird, and Cedar Waxwing. See Enhancing Your Backyard for Wildlife for more information.

If you would like to attract bluebirds to your area and help supplement their diet, especially during lean winter months, you can plant the following berry-producing shrubs, trees and vines. BEST BESTS: Flowering dogwood, foster holly, eastern red cedar, and american elderberry. Bluebirds have been confirmed to eat, and prefer the fruit from these plants. Some of the others listed below have not been confirmed (but are listed in many sources), or may be last resorts.

Before selecting plants, consider the following:

  • Check with a local nursery or County Extension Service (especially if they have a Master Gardener), or look in a garden book to see if the plants will do well in your area and conditions. For example, in northeastern Connecticut, only plants rated for Zone 5 and lower will thrive. Refer to the USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map to see what zone you live in.
  • Avoid invasives. Yes, bluebirds will eat the fruit of some of these exotic plants. In fact, one of the reasons their populations have exploded is because birds eat the fruit and then disperse the seeds when they defecate. But these alien plants can cause serious ecological harm, taking over whole habitats and choking out native species. Nationwide, three million acres are lost each year to invasive plants. In general, introduced plants are likely to invade or become noxious because they lack co-evolved competitors and natural enemies to control their populations. Go with native plants whenever possible--they are more likely to thrive in your area anyway. (An exception would be poison ivy for obvious reasons.)

Again, even though bluebirds may eat their fruit, the following non-native plants are invasive in some/all areas (see list that shows states where certain plants are of concern). If you are committed to responsible conservation, avoid these plants, and work to eradicate them if they are on your property. I've listed them in the table below also. Also be sure to get the correct SPECIES - for example native American Bittersweet (Celastrus scandens) is not invasive but Asian/Oriental Bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb.) is extremely invasive.

  • Autumn Olive - see Elaeagnus
  • Barberry, especially Japanese (Berberis thunbergii), also European (Berberis vulgaris)
  • Bradford/Callery Pear - Pyrus calleryana - recent cultivars bred to reduce splitting are not sterile and are invading distrubed areas in the eastern U.S.
  • Cherry Silverberry - - see Elaeagnus
  • Chinaberry/Umbrella Tree/Persian Lilac (Melia azedarach L.)
  • Chinese Tallow Tree (Sapium sebiferum or Triadica sebifera)
  • Common Privet (Ligustrum vulgare) and Japanese (L. japonicum)
  • Cotoneasters - some like Franchet (Cotoneaster franchetti) and silverleaf (Cotoneaster pannosa)
  • Dwarf Mistletoe (Arceuthobium spp.)
  • Elaeagnus: Russian Olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia), Autumn Olive (E. umbellata), Cherry Silverberry (E. multiflora), Thorny Elaeagnus (E. pungens)
  • English or Cherry Laurel (Prunus laurocerasus)
  • English Ivy (Hedera helix)
  • Honeysuckles (11 species listed in some states) especially Japanese Honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica), also Tatarian Honeysuckle (Lonicera tatarica)
  • Leatherlef Mahonia (Mahoni bealei)
    Morrow Honeysuckle (Lonicera morrowii) and their hybrids
  • Multiflora Rose (Rosa multiflora Thunbergi)
  • Porcelain Berry (Ampelopsis brevipedunculata (Maxim)
  • Russian Olive - see Elaeagnus
  • Oriental/Asiatic Bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb.) - bright orange berries along the length of stems - American Bittersweet is not invasive
  • Thorny Elaegnus see Elaeagnus
  • White (wild) mulberry (Morus alba) - white berries
  • Consider cultivars that may be hardier (e.g., disease-resistant), more attractive, and produce more fruit. For example, 'Apple Serviceberry' is a hybrid that produces larger leaves (with brilliant fall color), flowers and fruit than either of its parents.
  • Consider the plant's other qualities: How big will it get? What kind of soil and sunlight does it need? Does it transplant well? Does it need to be watered? Is the fruit toxic to humans/pets (e.g., pokeweed, poison ivy)? Is it susceptible to diseases common in your area? Will it make a mess (e.g., serviceberry drops twigs, fruit from pokeberry can leave stains)? What time of year does it produce fruit? (It is best to have food sources that span seasons, so plant a variety.)
  • For plants that are dioecious (separate male and female plants), make sure you have at least one of each, or the female will not bear fruit.
  • The fruit of the plants listed may vary in nutritional value. Look at when they produce fruit, and how long the fruit persists. For example, blackberry plants will not provide winter food for birds, whereas Eastern Red Cedar and holly will.
  • Some fruits (like Holly) may look ripe, but cold weather (one or more freeze thaw cycles) is needed to convert the starches to sugars.

PLANTS THAT PRODUCE BERRIES BLUEBIRDS WILL EAT

Note: I am looking for confirmation - if you have witnessed bluebirds eating berries from a plant listed below with a "?" after it, please contact me. Plants highlighted in yellow (with an "#" after the common name are considered invasive in some/all areas and should never be planted.

This website focuses on Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia sialis). See below for plants that Western Bluebirds (Sialia mexicana) may favor. Western Bluebirds are still in decline, so these natural, native food sources are particularly critical.

 
Common Name Scientific Name Type, Fruiting Season

Hardi-ness
Zone

Con-firmed
American Highbush Cranberry See Viburnum trilobum      
Ampelopsis, Heartleaf Ampelopsis cordata Vine. Fall. Looks like grape vine. 5 ?
Autumn Olive# Elaeagnus umbellata INVASIVE. AVOID!    
Barberry, Japanese or European/Common# Japanese (Berberis thunbergii), European (Berberis vulgaris) INVASIVE. AVOID!    
Bayberry Myrica pennsylvanica Shrub, fall/winter. Tolerates poor dry soils. Need female. 3-6 Y?
Bayberry, Northern Myrica carolinensis Shrub, fall/winter. Tolerates poor dry soils. Need female. 3-6 ?
Beautyberry, American Beauty Bush Callicarpa americana Shrub, fall/winter. Lots of purple berries, nice in flower arrangements. Moist soil. 5/6-10 Y
Bittersweet, American Celastrus scandens Vine, fall, winter. Doesn't like wet soil. ORIENTAL bittersweet is extremely invasive. 3-8 Y
Oriental/Asiatic Bittersweet# Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb. INVASIVE. AVOID! Bright orange berries along the length of stems    
Blackberry, Dewberry, Raspberry Rubus sp. Shrub, summer/fall. Spreading. Full sun. 5-9 Y for raspberry
Blackhaw Viburnum prunifolium Shrub, winter. Showy flowers. Drought tolerant. 3-9 ?
Black Currant, American/Wild Ribes americanum Shrub. summer/fall. Hosts white pine disease. 5 ?
Black Tupelo/Black Gum/Sour Gum Nyssa sylvatica Tree, summer/autumn. Moist well drained soil. 4 Y
Blueberry, Highbush and sp. Vaccinum corymbosum and sp. Shrub, summer. Acidic soil. 4 Y
Bradford Pear (also called Callery pear) Pyrus calleryana 'Bradford' SOME ARE INVASIVE. AVOID! - Tree - short-lived (15-25 yrs.) May not survive storms - branches break off - trim suckers. Different varieties produce fruit at different times. Recent non-sterile cultivars are invading eastern U.S.   Y
Buckthorn, Carolina Rhamnus caroliniana Tree, summer/fall   ?
Buckthorn, Cascara Rhamnus purshiana Tree, summer/fall   ?
Camphor tree Cinnamomum camphora     Y
Carolina Snailseed Cocculus carolinus     Y
Cascara (seeds) Rhammus purshiana     Y
Cat Claw Uncaria tomentosa? Macfadyena unguis-cati (L.) ? Vine. Not native, reported as invasive in FL   ?
Cedar, Eastern Red Juniperus virginiania Tree, fall and winter. Prefers moist soil, full sun. Dioecious. Offers year round cover. 2-9 Preferred
Cedar, Rocky Mountain Juniperus scopulorum Tree, fall and winter. Offers year round cover. INVASIVE in HI and OR 2 ?
Cherry, Bitter Prunus emarginata Tree/shrub. Full sun-part shade. 6a-9b ?
Cherry, Black Prunus serotina Tree, summer/fall. Best in moist soil, full sun. 3-9 Y

Cherry, Pin/Wild Red

Prunus pennsylvanica

Tree, summer/fall 3-7 Y?
Cherry or English Laurel# Prunus laurocerasus INVASIVE. AVOID!    
Chinaberry/Umbrella Tree/Persian Lilac# Melia azedarach L. INVASIVE. AVOID!    
Chinese Tallow Tree# Sapium sebiferum or Triadica sebifera INVASIVE. AVOID!    
Chokeberry, red Aronia arbutifolia Shrub, fall/winter. 'Brilliantissima' produces fruit that persists till spring. Fragrant flowers. Prefers moist soil. Tough. 3-9 Y

Chokecherry, Black/Common

Prunus virginiana Shrub/Tree, summer/autumn. Adaptable. 2-7 Y
Cotoneaster, Franchet or Silverleaf# Franchet (Cotoneaster franchetti) and Silverleaf (C.pannosa) INVASIVE. AVOID!    
Crabapple, European Malus (sylvestris?) Molten Lava confirmed Tree, summer/fall. Non-native. Siberian (M. baccata) may be invasive.   Y
Cranberry, Highbush see Virburnum trilobum      
Currant - see Red Currant        
Dahoon Ilex cassine     Y
Dates Phoenix dactylifera     Y
Dock Rumex spp.     Y
Dogwood, Alternate-leaf/Pagoda Cornus alternifolia Tree, summer/fall. Elegant, resists anthracnose. Moist-wet soils. 3-7 Y?
Dogwood, Flowering Cornus florida Tree, summer, autumn, winter. Lovely flowers and branches. 5a-8b Preferred
Dogwood, Gray Cornus racemosa Shrub (thicket). Fall/winter. White fruit, showy stem. Moist-dry soils. 4a-8b Y?
Dogwood, Kousa Cornus kousa Tree, summer/fall. Prefers partial shade. 4-8 Y
Dogwood, Pacific Cornus nuttallii Tree   ?
Dogwood, Red Osier Cornus stolonifera Shrub/tree, summer/fall. Fast growing. Red twigs. Moist soil. 2-7. Y
Dogwood, Rough Leaf Cornus Drummondii Tree, small. Early summer fruit. Sun/partial shade   ?
Dogwood, Silky Cornus amomum Shrub. Blue fruit. Prefers moist soil. 4-8 ?
Elderberry, American or Common Sambucus canadensis Shrub (thicket)/tree, summer/fall. (Flat rounded blossom). Purple/blue fruit ripens in Sept. Moist soil. 3-9 Preferred
Elderberry, Red Sambucus racemosa Shrub, (Cone-shaped blossom). Bright red berries ripen June-July. Moist soil. (3?)4-7 ?
English Ivy# Hedera helix INVASIVE. AVOID!    
Figs Ficus spp.     Y
Giant Palms ? Dates   Y
Grapes, Wild (Winter or Muscadine), Thompson Seedless Table Grapes, Concord, Delaware Vitis sp. (Winter is vitis vulpina). V. vinifera INVASIVE in CA and WA Vine, summer, fall, winter. Delaware: Delaware grapes are smaller with more tender skin and may be favored.   Y, Small or as raisins
Hackberry, Common Celtis occidentalis Tree, winter. Likes full sun. 2-9 Y
Hawthorne, Mahaw Crataegus opaca Tree, small. Spring fruit. Full/partial shade   ?
Hawthorne, Washington Crataegus phaenopyrum Tree, fall/winter. Thorns. Likes full sun. 3-8 ?
Hercules Club Aralia spinosa Thicket forming. Summer, fall 4? 6? ?
Highbush Blueberry Vaccinium corymbosum Shrub, fall. Moist soil. 3-7 Y
Holly, American Ilex opaca Shrub; Tree in South. Winter. Need one male for every 3 females. Protect from winter winds. 5-9 Y
Holly, Blue Boy and Blue Girl Ilex x meserveae Shrub. Winter. Hardiest of hollies, with glossy blue-green leaves. Need male and female. to 5 Y
Holly, Deciduous Ilex decidua Tree. Fall, winter. Need male and female 7 ?
Holly, Foster Ilex x attenuata 'Fosteri' Shrub/Tree. Best fruiting in full sun. Produces berries consistently, long lived, attractive,holds many of berries all winter and late in spring. Non-native. 6-9 Y
Holly, Yaupon Ilex vomitoria Shrub/Tree. Drought tolerant. 7a-10b Y?
Honeysuckle Lonicera sp. e.g., Rem Red - Lonicera maackii 'rem red' Shrub. Avoid invasives such as Japanese. Maackii considered invasive by some.   ?
Honeysuckle, Japanese and Tatarian# Japanese (Lonicera japonica), Tatarian (L. tatarica), Morrow (L. morrowii) 11 species listed as INVASIVE in certain states. AVOID!    
Huckleberry, Red? Evergreen? Vaccinium parvifolium? Shrub 5a-8b Y?
Huckleberry, Black Gaylussacia baccata Shrub, summer. Sandy acidic soil. 2 Y?
Inkberry Ilex glabra Shrub (thicket), fall/winter. Acidic soil. 4-9 ?
Juniper, California Juniperus californica Shrub/tree. Drought tolerant. 8a-10b ?
Juniper, Common Juniperus communis Shrub, Winter 2-7 ?
Juniper, One-seed Juniperus monosperma Tree. Full sun. Drought tolerant 3a-7b ?
Juniper, Rocky Mountain Juniperus scopulorum Shrub/Tree, winter 3a-8b ?
Juniper, Utah Juniperus osteosperma     ?
Juniper, Western Juniperus occidentalis     ?
Lantana sp? (over 100 species?) Species? Not all Lantana plants produce berries. Shrub with purple berries. The berries can be toxic to cattle and other stock?, but are not toxic to birds.   Y
Madrone Arbutus menziesii Tree, fall/winter 7-9 ?
Magnolia, Southern       Y
Mahonia, Leatherleaf Mahonia bealei Evergreen shrub. Blue fruit in summer. Can be weedy and INVASIVE in SE- AVOID 6a-9b Y
Mistletoe Phoradendron sp. including P. coryae (oak mistletoe)
M. falvescens

Phoradendron serotinum?
Viscacae?
Shrub, fall, winter. Native, non-invasive. At least 57 plants have "mistletoe" in their name, not sure which kind bluebirds eat other than Oak Mistletoe. 6 Y
Mistletoe, dwarf# Arceuthobium spp. INVASIVE. AVOID!   ?
Moonseed Menispermum canadense Vine, winter. Fast growing. Moist shady areas 3 ?
Mountain ash, American Sorbus americana Tree, fall, winter. Bright orange fruit. 3 Y?
Mountain Ash, European# Sorbus aucuparia Tree, summer/autumn. Moist well-drained soils, full sun. Does not do well in South. Non-native - INVASIVE in some states - Avoid. 3-6 ?
Mountain Ash, Sitka Sorbus sitchensis Shrub/small tree. Likes sun. Good fall color. 4-8 ?
Mulberry, Black Morus nigra L. Tree/shrub. Non-native.   Y. Last resort?
Mulberry, Red Morus rubra Tree, summer/autumn. Adaptable. Some require male + female to fruit. 5-9 Y
Mulberry, White or Wild# Morus alba INVASIVE. AVOID! White berries.    
Multiflora Rose# Rosa multiflora Thunbergi INVASIVE. AVOID!    
Nannyberry Viburnum lentago Shrub (30'), fall, winter. Fast growing, shade tolerant. 2-8 Y
Nightshade Solanum spp.     Y
Pear, Aristocrat (also see Bradford) Pyrus calleryana Tree. Full sun. Less susceptible to branch breakage. Good fall color. 5 Y
Persimmon Diospyros virginiana Tree. Fall/winter. Need female. (Not really a berry)   Y?
Pokeweed, Common (pokeberry, pokeroot, inkberry) Phytolacca americana Considered a weed. Perennial. 3 Preferred
Possum Haw/Decidious Holly Ilex decidua Shrub. Copious red fruit. Dioecious. Prefers moist soil. Eaten by bluebirds after several freeze-thaw cycles. 5-9 ?
Porcelain Berry, Amur Peppervine# Ampelopsis brevipedunculata (Maxim?) INVASIVE. AVOID!    
Privet, Common# Ligustrum vulgare INVASIVE. AVOID!    
Pyracantha/Scarlet Firethorn Pyracantha coccinea Non-native. INVASIVE in OR. Full sun for best fruiting. Thorns. 6-9 Y, Last resort
Redbay Persea Persea borbonia     Y
Red Currant (Swamp?) Ribes triste Native. Shrub, bright red berry, sun to partial shade. Ribes L. (gooseberry, currant) considered invasive in some states, noxious in others probably because it is part of the White Pine Blister Rust life cycle. 2 Y (may eat dried)
Red Tip Photinia Photinia fraseri Non-native. Shrub, evergreen. Attractive foliage, showy flowers. Susceptible to fungal disease. 6-9 Y
Rose, pasture Rosa carolina Shrub. Fall/winter. Long lasting fruit 5 ?
Russian Olive# Elaeagnus angustifolia INVASIVE. AVOID!    
Sassafras Sassafras albidium Tree. Summer, fall. Dioecious. 4-9 Y?
Saw Greenbrier Smilax bona-nox Shrub/Vine, summer/fall. Nice fall color. (Greenbrier - Smilax L. - spreads quickly, briars are vicious, best for naturalized area.)   Y
Serviceberry/Shadbush Amelanchier arborea (hybrid), A. canadensis. A. laevis? Shrub, summer. Blueberry-like fruit. Adaptable and tough. Nice winter effect. 4-9 Y
Smartweed Polygonum spp.     Y
Snowberry Symphoricarpos albus Shrub, summer/fall   ?
Sugarberry/Hackberry Celtis laevigata Tree. Moist-wet soils. 6-9 Y
Sumac, Dwarf Rhus copallina Shrub, Winter ? Y
Sumac, Smooth Rhus glabra Shrub (thicket), fall, winter. Fruits persist till spring. 3-8/9 Y
Sumac, Staghorn* Rhus typhina Shrub (thicket), winter. Fruits, altho not high in nutritional value, persist till spring and thus help sustain birds. Full sun, heat tolerant, nice fall foliage. 4-8 Y, Last resort
Swamp rose Rosa pulastris     ?
Thimbleberry Rubus parviflorus     Y
Wax leaf ligustrum/Japanese Privet# Ligustrum japonicum INVASIVE. AVOID! 9-10 Y?
Wax Myrtle Myrica cerifera Evergreen shrub, winter. Adaptable. Moist soils 8a-9b ?
Winterberry, smooth Ilex laevigata ??? Tree, winter   ?
Winterberry Ilex verticillata Shrub. Fall, winter. Acidic, moist-wet soil. Need 1 male with females 3-9 Y
Viburnum, Arrowwood Virburnum dentatum Shrub. Fall. Dry to medium wet soil. Hardy. 3-8 Y
Viburnum, Cranberry Viburnum trilobum Shrub. Fall/winter. Bright red berries, attractive flower, nice fall foliage. Shade tolerant 2 ?
Virginia Creeper Parthenocissus quinquefolia Vine, fall/winter. Nice fall color. Dry to average soil. Vigorous, hard to remove from buildings. 3-9 Y

* Bluebirds will also eat poison ivy (Rhus radicans), and poison oak (Toxidendron diversilobum) berries, which are white.

They do not appear to like Nandina domestic (Heavenly bamboo, non-native) - a juvenile was witnessed trying to spit the fruit out.

Once the skin is broken bluebirds will peck at and eat apples, pears, figs, bing, sweet and sour cherries, and all types of grapes. Bluebirds will also feed on hickory, walnuts, chestnuts, pecans, butternuts, pig nuts and other nuts when other birds, animals or cars crush the shells so that they can get to the meat.

Western Bluebirds may eat berries from the following ([c] = confirmed). Many of these plants are drought tolerant. The liquid in the berries from plants like the Lemonadeberry may be as important to Southwestern birds during hot summer months as high-calorie berries are to Eastern birds during the winter.
  • Baja Bird Bush (Ornithostaphylos oppositifolia)
  • Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)
  • Blackberries and raspberries (Rubus spp.) [c]
  • California Fan Palm (Washingtonia filifera)- fibers also used for nesting material [c]
  • California (Peruvian) Peppertree (Schinus molle) - hard pink berry. May be last resort food. Non-native. Need male and female. [c]
  • Cascara (seeds) (Rhammus purshiana) [c]
  • Chokecherries (Prunus virginiana) [c]
  • Coffeeberry (Rhamnus californica)
  • Coralberry (Symphoricarpos orbiculatus)
  • Currant (Ribes spp.) [c]
  • Dock (Rumex spp.) [c]
  • Dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium pusillum)
  • Dwarf sumac (Rhus copallina) [c]
  • Elderberry
    • blackbead (Sambucus melanocarpa)
    • Blue (Sambucus caerulea - dry areas) [c]
    • Mexican (Sambucus mexicanus) [c]
    • Pacific Red (Sambucus callicarpa)
  • Figs (Ficus spp.) [c]
  • Grapes (Vitus spp.) [c]
  • Juniper (Juniperus) [c]
  • Hollyleaf Cherry (Prunus ilicifolia)
  • Lantana (Lantana sp.)
  • Laurel sumac (Rhus laurina)
  • Lemonadeberry (Rhus integrifolia) [c]
  • Mistletoe spp., Oak (e.g., Phoradendron coryae) [c] - observed drinking water repeatedly during feeding by Bob Schmalzel in Tucson
  • Nightshade (Solanum spp.) [c]
  • Redberry (Rhamnus crocea and Rhamnus ilicifolia) [c]
  • Serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia) [c]
  • Oregon grape (Mahonia aquifolium) [c]
  • Pacific madrone (Arbutus menziesii)
  • Pepper tree (Schinus molle) [c]
  • Poison Oak (Rhus diversiloba) [c]
  • Prunes and cherries (Prunus spp.) [c]
  • Smartweed (Polygonus spp.) [c]
  • Toyon/Christmas Berry (Heteromeles arbutifolia) [c]
  • Wild Rose (Rosa woodsii)

In addition to the fruit sources, you can add native plants that support edible insects and caterpillars, such as Coffeeberry, California Aster, Ceanothus, Baja Fairy Duster and Sticky Monkeyflower.

Sources and Links for more information:
Quote
- Author

HOME | Basics | Resources | House Sparrows | House Wrens | Nest/Egg ID | Site Map and Search | Suet Recipes | Tree Swallows | Contact me Bluebird Conservation

May all your blues be birds!

If you experience problems with the website/find broken links/have suggestions/corrections, please contact me!
The purpose of this site is to share information with anyone interested in bluebird conservation.
Feel free to link to it (preferred as I update content regularly), or use text from it for personal or educational purposes, with a link back to http://www.sialis.org or a citation for the author.
No permission is granted for commercial use.
Appearance of automatically generated Google or other ads on this site does not constitute endorsement of any of those services or products!

Photo in header by Wendell Long.
© Original photographs are copyrighted, and may not be used without the express permission of the photographer. Please honor their copyright protection.
See disclaimer, necessitated by today's sadly litigious world.
Last updated November 22, 2013. Design by Chimalis.

Chimalis